Prostate Cancer Treatment

What is Prostate Cancer?

The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped gland found in the pelvis of men. It is located next to the bladder and can be examined by a digital rectal exam. Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate gland.

Prostate cancer cells can spread when they separate from a prostate tumor. They can travel through blood vessels or lymph nodes to reach other parts of the body. After spreading, cancer cells can attach to other tissues and grow to form new tumors, causing damage where they land.

When prostate cancer spreads from its original place to another part of the body, the new tumor has the same type of abnormal cells and the same name as the primary (original) tumor. For example, if prostate cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are prostate cancer cells. The disease is metastatic prostate cancer.



It is not clear what causes prostate cancer.

Risk factors:-

Advanced age:- Your risk of prostate cancer increases with age. It is more common after age 50.

Race:-For reasons yet to be determined, black people have a higher risk of prostate cancer than people of other races. In black people, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced.

Family history:- If a blood relative, such as a parent, brother, or child, has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, the risk of it may increase. Also, if she has a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, her risk of prostate cancer may be higher.

Obesity:- Obese people may have a higher risk of prostate cancer compared to people who are considered to be at a healthy weight, although studies have shown mixed results. In obese people, the cancer is more likely to be more aggressive and more likely to come back after initial treatment.

How can you reduce your risk of prostate cancer if?

Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables:-Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health.

It has not yet been conclusively proven whether you can prevent prostate cancer through diet. But eating a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health.

Choose healthy foods instead of supplements:- No studies have shown that supplements play a role in reducing the risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods rich in vitamins and minerals so that you can maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body.

Exercise most days of the week:-Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight, and improves your mood. Try to exercise most days of the week. If you are new to exercise, start out slow and build up to more exercise time each day.

Keep a healthy weight:- If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor for help creating a plan for healthy weight loss.

Talk to your doctor about an increased risk of prostate cancer. If you are at very high risk for prostate cancer, you and your doctor may consider medications or other treatments to lower the risk. Some studies suggest that taking 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, including finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart), may reduce the overall risk of developing prostate cancer. These drugs are used to control an enlarged prostate and hair loss.

However, some evidence indicates that people who take these drugs may have a higher risk of developing a more serious form of prostate cancer (high-grade prostate cancer). If you are concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer, talk to your doctor.

Who is most likely to get prostate cancer?

All men are at risk for prostate cancer, but African American men are more likely to have prostate cancer than other men. All men are at risk for prostate cancer. About 13 of every 100 American men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime, and about 2 to 3 men will die of prostate cancer.

How do you check for prostate cancer at home?

Other than a home PSA blood test, there is no easy way to get a home prostate cancer screening test. Seeing a doctor for a digital rectal exam is recommended as they are experienced in palpating the prostate for lumps or enlarged prostate.

Can Prostate Cancer kill you?

It kills about 30,000 persons a year. In most men, prostate cancer is not likely to kill them sooner than anything else. But since prostate cancer still kills many men, it is important to find out which men are at the highest risk of dying prematurely. This new study shows that PSA can tell you.

Can prostate cancer be cured?

The short answer is yes, prostate cancer can be cured when it is found and treated early. The vast majority of prostate cancer cases (more than 90 percent) are discovered in the early stages, increasing the likelihood that tumors will respond to treatment.

What are the 4 stages of prostate cancer?

Stage 1 prostate cancer

Stage 1 is prostate cancer in the least advanced form. Cancer in this stage hasn’t spread past the prostate gland and is rather small.

Stage 2 prostate cancer

In stage 2, the tumor is still confined to the prostate and hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or other parts of a person’s body. It is divided into stages 2A, 2B and 2C.

Stage 3 prostate cancer

At stage 3, cancer cells may or may not have spread outside the prostate to other tissues. As in stage 2, stage 3 prostate cancer is broken down into three letter subgroups 3A, 3B and 3C.

Stage 4 prostate cancer

Stage 4 is the most advanced stage or last stage of prostate cancer and is divided into two sub groups. By stage 4, cancer has typically spread to distant body parts of the patient. It is grouped as 4A and 4B.

How long can you live with prostate cancer with no treatment?

Studies have shown that between 86% and 98% of men with CPL do not die of cancer in all age groups, the researchers wrote. More than 95% of the patients with CPL live at least 10 years after their diagnosis, while only 25% of the patients in this study expected to live more than 10 years.


Your doctor can check your blood PSA levels regularly, but you should not take any action immediately.

Prostate cancer grows slowly, and the risk of side effects may outweigh the need for immediate treatment.


A surgeon can perform a prostatectomy. They can remove the prostate gland using laparoscopic or open surgery.


Brachytherapy - A doctor will implant radioactive seeds into the prostate to deliver targeted radiation treatment.

Conformal radiation therapy: targets a specific area, minimizing risk to healthy tissue. Another type, called intensity-modulated radiation therapy, uses beams of varying intensity.

Treatment will depend on several factors. A doctor will discuss the best option for the individual.

Advanced prostate cancer:-

As cancer grows, it can spread throughout the body. If it spreads or comes back after remission, treatment options will change.

Chemotherapy: It can kill cancer cells throughout the body, but it can cause adverse effects.

Hormone therapy: Androgens are male hormones. The main androgens are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Blocking or reducing these hormones appears to stop or slow the growth of cancer cells. One option is to have surgery to remove the testicles, which produce most of the body's hormones. Various medications can also help.

Lupron is a type of hormone therapy that doctors use to treat prostate cancer. What does this treatment involve?

Most doctors do not recommend reliable Source surgery in the later stages, as it does not treat cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. However, some experts have suggested that it can help in some cases.

New treatments

Some newer approaches aim to treat prostate cancer without the side effects that other treatment options can bring.


high intensity focused ultrasound

After surgery, a doctor will continue to monitor PSA levels. Learn more about what to expect here.

What are the protective factors for ovarian cancer?

The contraceptive pill, also known as a combined oral contraceptive, has other benefits in addition to preventing pregnancy. The pill can cut your risk of ovarian cancer by almost half if you take it for 10 years. However, birth control pills can increase your risk for other diseases, so weigh the benefits and risks with a trusted healthcare provider.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding reduce the chance of developing ovarian cancer. The fewer ovulatory cycles a woman has (due to pregnancy, breastfeeding, or contraception), the lower the risk she will have of ovarian cancer during her lifetime. Breastfeeding often decreases the number of cycles a woman experiences.

A hysterectomy with removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries decreases the risk of ovarian cancer. However, many women who have a hysterectomy leave their ovaries in place to maintain their normal hormones.

How can you treat ovarian cancer?

Treatment options for ovarian cancer include surgery and chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Surgery involves removing the affected ovary (ovaries) or ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus and performing a biopsy to evaluate cancer cells.

*Surgery-surgery is the main treatment. You may choose to remove the ovary and the tissue affected by cancer. However, some women prefer to remove both the ovaries and the uterus and fallopian tubes to reduce the risk of recurrence.

*Chemotherapy-chemotherapy is a treatment that enters the bloodstream and kills cancer cells. It can be beneficial, but it also damages healthy cells in the body.

*Hormone therapy-hormone therapy blocks the production of hormones that cause tumors to grow and spread.

*Targeted therapy-targeted therapy is a newer treatment that kills cancer cells but minimizes damage to healthy cells.

*Radiation therapy -radiation therapy for cancer that has spread beyond the ovaries. It uses energy particles and X-rays to destroy cancer cells. 

Can you fully recover from ovarian cancer?

Yes, many women can fully recover from ovarian cancer after surgery or chemotherapy. Ovarian cancers caused by germ cell or stromal tumors have high survival rates. However, epithelial carcinoma is the most common type of ovarian cancer and has lower survival rates.

Where should I seek diagnosis and treatment?

The University of Kansas Cancer Center is the only National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center in the region. The cancer center is transforming the experience of ovarian cancer patients by providing compassionate care and support throughout the diagnosis and by offering the latest and most innovative treatments for ovarian cancer. 

The Women's Cancer Center focuses solely on women's cancers, including gynecological and breast diseases. Our cancer care teams are dedicated to improving patient outcomes.

What is the most accurate test for prostate cancer?

If your doctor determines that you should have a screening test, they will most likely recommend the PSA test. For more than 30 years, the PSA test has been the gold standard in the detection of prostate cancer. This simple blood test measures the amount of PSA in the blood.

Prostate cancer Awareness

Let's watch the informative video on Kidney Cancer Awareness by Dr. Chinmaya Pani, Senior Consultant - Medical Oncologist.